Republic of Kazakhstan

  • Қазақстан Республикасы  (Kazakh)
    Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy
  • Республика Казахстан  (Russian)
    Respublika Kazakhstan
Anthem: Менің Қазақстаным
Meniń Qazaqstanym
«My Kazakhstan»


Location of  Kazakhstan  (green)

Location of  Kazakhstan  (green)
Capital Astana
51°10′N 71°26′E
Largest city Almaty
Official languages
Ethnic groups(2016[2])
Demonym Kazakhstani[a][4]
Government Unitary presidentialconstitutional republic
Nursultan Nazarbayev
Bakhytzhan Sagintayev
Legislature Parliament
13 December 1917
26 August 1920
19 June 1925
5 December 1936
• Declared Sovereignty
25 October 1990
• Reconstituted as the Republic of Kazakhstan
10 December 1991
• Declared Independence from the USSR
16 December 1991
21 December 1991
26 December 1991
2 March 1992
30 August 1995
• Total
2,724,900 km2(1,052,100 sq mi) (9th)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
17,987,736[5] (64th)
• Density
6.49/km2(16.8/sq mi) (227th)
GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate
• Total
$497 billion[6] (42nd)
• Per capita
$26,929[6] (53rd)
GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate
• Total
$170 billion[6] (50th)
• Per capita
$9,224[6] (54th)
Gini (2013) 26.4[7]
HDI (2014) Increase 0.788[8]
high · 56th
Currency Tenge (₸) (KZT)
Time zone West / East(UTC+5 / +6)
Drives on the right
Calling code +7-6xx, +7-7xx
ISO 3166 code KZ
Internet TLD

Kazakhstan[b] (KazakhҚазақстанtranslit. QazaqstanIPA: [qɑzɑqˈstɑn] (About this sound listen)RussianКазахстанIPA: [kəzɐxˈstan]), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасыtranslit. Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Russian: Республика Казахстанtr.Respublika Kazakhstan),[4][13] is the world’s largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres (1,052,100 sq mi).[4][14] Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region’s GDP, primarily through its oil/gas industry. It also has vast mineral resources.[15] Some argue that Kazakhstan may be considered a European country because Kazakhstan’s Western region is on the European continent and meets the Council of Europe‘s criteria for European inclusion.[16]

Kazakhstan is officially a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage.[17] Kazakhstan shares borders with RussiaChinaKyrgyzstanUzbekistan, and Turkmenistan, and also adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea. The terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, steppetaigarock canyonshillsdeltas, snow-capped mountains, and deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated 18 million people as of 2014.[18] Given its large land area, its population density is among the lowest, at less than 6 people per square kilometre (15 people per sq mi). The capital is Astana, where it was moved in 1997 from Almaty, the country’s largest city.

The territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as Turkic Khaganate etc. In the 13th century, the territory joined the Mongolian Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz (ancestor branches occupying specific territories). The Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, and by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, and subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times. In 1936, it was made the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, part of the Soviet Union.

Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. The current PresidentNursultan Nazarbayev, has been leader of the country since then, and is characterised as authoritarian, with a government history of human rights abuses and suppression of political opposition.[15] Kazakhstan has worked to develop its economy, especially its dominant hydrocarbon industry.[15] Human Rights Watch says that «Kazakhstan heavily restricts freedom of assembly, speech, and religion,»[19] and other human rights organisations regularly describe Kazakhstan’s human rights situation as poor.

Kazakhstan’s 131 ethnicities include Kazakhs (63% of the population), RussiansUzbeksUkrainiansGermansTatars, and Uyghurs.[20] Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, with Christianity practised by 26%.[21] Kazakhstan officially allows freedom of religion, but religious leaders who oppose the government are suppressed.[22] The Kazakh language is the state language, and Russian has equal official status for all levels of administrative and institutional purposes.[4][23] Kazakhstan is a member of the United NationsWTOCIS, the Eurasian Economic UnionCSTOSCOOSCEOIC, and TURKSOY.

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